By L. Bogir. Metropolitan State College of Denver. 2018.
Aetiology Pathophysiology Mayarise as a complication of miliary tuberculosis or In viralmeningitis there is a predominantly lymphoid in primary or post primary infections generic clonidine 0.1 mg hypertension 2015. Clinical features Patients present with headache usually over 1–2 days quality clonidine 0.1mg blood pressure 210 over 110, Pathophysiology fever order clonidine 0.1mg without a prescription heart attack 22, nausea, photophobia, malaise and neck stiffness. Ifatuberculous focus develops in the brain, meninges or Rash, upper respiratory symptoms and occasionally di- skull and ruptures into the subarachnoid space, a hyper- arrhoeamaybepresent. This inﬂammation can directly involve the cranial are absent in recurrent infections. Clinical features Culture is possible, but rarely useful clinically as it The onset is usually insidious over days or weeks, al- takes up to 2 weeks. Focal neurology may develop If bacterial meningitis is suspected, broad-spectrum an- at this time including cranial nerve signs and hemi- tibiotics must be given without delay. Macroscopy/microscopy The subarachnoid space is ﬁlled with a viscous green exudate, the meninges are thickened and tubercles and Tuberculous meningitis chronic inﬂammation may be seen in the brain and on Deﬁnition the meninges. Treatment Metastatic carcinoma and should be initiated on clinical suspicion, before conﬁr- adenocarcinomas mation, as deterioration can occur within days, and even Auto-immune/ Systemic lupus erythematosus Inﬂammatory Behcˆet’s disease when treated mortality is as high as 15–40%. Sarcoid Corticosteroids have been shown to reduce vascular Drugs Particularly nonsteroidal complications, and improve survival and neurological anti-inﬂammatory drugs function. If it is not clear whether the process is bacterial or vi- Aetiology ral, antibiotics may be given empirically whilst awaiting The differential diagnosis for these cases of ‘aseptic further investigation. Acute viral encephalitis Investigations/management In many cases of aseptic meningitis, the diagnosis is of Deﬁnition aself-limiting, benign viral meningitis. However, it is Inﬂammation of the brain parenchyma caused by important to consider these other causes, particularly if viruses. Around the world, arthropod- In all cases except herpes simplex encephalitis there is borne viruses cause epidemics and rabies causes an no effective treatment apart from supportive manage- almost invariably fatal encephalitis. Sus- pected cases of herpes encephalitis are treated urgently Pathophysiology with high dose i. Inﬂammation affects the meninges and parenchyma causing oedema and hence Prognosis raised intracranial pressure, diffuse and focal neurolog- Herpes simplex encephalitis has a mortality of 20% de- ical dysfunction. Persistent neu- Clinical features rological deﬁcits occur in 50%, particularly memory im- The main triad of symptoms is headache, fever and al- pairment, personality change, dysphasia and epilepsy. Seizures (par- ticularly temporal lobe seizures) are also a presenting Tetanus feature. Deﬁnition Tetanus is a toxin mediated condition causing muscle Macroscopy/microscopy spasms following a wound infection. The meninges are hyperaemic, the brain is swollen, sometimes with evidence of petechial haemorrhage and necrosis. There is cufﬁng of blood vessels by mononu- Aetiology clear cells and viral inclusion bodies may be seen. Clostridium tetani (the causative organism), an anaero- bic spore forming bacillus, originates from the faeces of domestic animals. Tracheostomy and ventilatory support may r Generalisedtetanusisthemostcommonpresentation, be necessary for severe laryngeal spasm. The Childrenareroutinelyvaccinatedagainsttetanusfrom facial muscles may contort to cause a typical expres- age 2 months. Any sensory stimulation such asnoiseresultsingeneralisedmusclespasmsincluding Poliomyelitis arching of the back (opisthotonos). Spasms of the lar- ynx can impede respiration, and autonomic dysfunc- Deﬁnition tion causes arrhythmias, sweating and a labile blood Infection of a susceptible individual with poliovirus type pressure. Geography Acute poliomyelitis has been eradicated in developed Complications countries, apart from rare cases due to the live, atten- Muscle spasms may lead to injury, in severe cases res- uated oral polio vaccine. Thevirusisneurotropic,withpropensityfortheanterior r A booster dose with tetanus toxoid (which is an in- horn cells of the spinal cord and cranial nerve motor activated toxin which induces active immunisation), neurones. The virus enters via the gastrointestinal tract, or course of three injections, should additionally be then migrates up peripheral nerves. Theincubationperiodis7–14days,anumberofpatterns Active tetanus:Patients should be nursed in a quiet, occur: dark area to reduce spasms. Surgical wound debride- r Subclinical infection occurs in 95% of infected indi- ment should be performed where indicated and intra- viduals. However, the immunoglobulin can only neu- r Paralytic poliomyelitis occurs in about 0. This form is predisposed to by male sex; Chapter 7: Infections of the nervous system 307 exercise early in the illness; trauma, surgery, or intra- r Post-polio syndrome management is non-speciﬁc, muscularinjectionwhichlocalisestheparalysis,recent withthetreatmentoflimbandjointdeformities,man- tonsillectomy (bulbar poliomyelitis). Dys- phagia and dysarthria result, with the risk of aspi- Cerebritis and cerebral abscess ration pneumonia.
In patients without cognitive awareness or lack of motivation to remain Aetiology dry buy discount clonidine 0.1mg online arteria zabrze, scheduled or prompted voiding reduces the num- Most frequently due to bacteria clonidine 0.1 mg free shipping prehypertension to treat or not to treat, in particular E generic 0.1mg clonidine mastercard blood pressure chart by age singapore. These and Histoplasma capsulatum), parasites (the protozoan tend to cause a dry mouth and may cause constipa- Trichomonas vaginalis and the ﬂuke Schistosoma haema- tion and/or urinary retention. Pathophysiology Combined stress and urge incontinence may be treated r Bacterialvirulencefactors:Criticaltothepathogenesis with behavioural therapy with or without medical ther- of bacteria is adherence to the uroepithelium as infec- apy. Surgicaltreatmentappearstobelesseffectivethanin tions ascend from the urethral oriﬁce to the bladder pure stress incontinence. Proteus), duction of urease, causes the alkalinisation of urine, so it hydrolyses urea and increases ammonia, which fa- that phosphate, carbonate and magnesium are more cilitates bacterial adherence. Other important risk factors include sexual intercourse, diabetes melli- Investigations tus, immunosuppression, instrumentation (including Mid-stream urine for urinalysis (dipstick testing), mi- catheterisation) and pregnancy. A culture is regarded as Urine itself is inhibitory to the growth of normal uri- 5 positive if >10 of a single organism per mL. Further investigations are required in children Clinical features (see page 268), males and females with recurrent infect- Acute cystitis typically presents with dysuria (a burning ions. Macroscopic haematuria is not uncommon, although this should Management prompt further investigation for any other underlying Empirical antibiotic therapy is used in symptomatic pa- disease such as urinary stones or a bladder malignancy. Pyelonephritis may present with few lower urinary tract Uncomplicated cystitis in a woman usually only requires symptoms, but more commonly causes systemic upset 3daysoforal antibiotics, whereas longer courses are re- withfever,rigors,chills,andloinpainortenderness. Both Intravenous antibiotics should be used in those who are pyelonephritis and prostatitis may be due to ascending systemically unwell or those who are vomiting. Quinolones such present nonspeciﬁcally with fever, falls, vomiting, or as ciproﬂoxacin are useful as resistant E. Macroscopy r Intravenoustherapyisoftenwithacephalosporinwith The urine is cloudy due to the pyuria (pus cells) and or without gentamicin. Over time, recurrences can cause chronic sistance, and some centres advise a ‘cycling regime’, e. If there is any evidence of obstruction this requires rapid drainage Aetiology (see page 256). Management Mild cases may respond to oral antibiotics as for urinary Pathophysiology tract infection, but many require intravenous therapy Predisposing factors to ascending infection include suchasgentamicinandciproﬂoxacin. Antibiotics should be tailored to the sensitivity stasis due to obstruction, dilatation or neurological and speciﬁcity, and continued for 10–14 days (longer causes and reﬂux. Clinical features Fever >38◦C, rigors, loin pain and tenderness with or withoutlowerurinarytractsymptoms. Deﬁnition An abscess that forms in the kidney, or in the perinephric Macroscopy/microscopy fat,astheresultofascendinginfectionorhaematogenous The kidneys appear hyperaemic, and tiny yellow-white spread. These have become less common, due to more spherical abscesses may be seen in the cortex. Aetiology Complications r As with other urinary tract infections, the most common Gram negative septicaemia causing shock is uncom- organisms are E. Necrotic renal papillae due to inﬂammatory thrombosis of the vasa recta, can be Pathophysiology shed, causing obstruction and acute renal failure. Commonly the infection ascends via the lower urinary r Recurrent infections cause renal scarring and im- tract to cause pyelonephritis. U&Es and creatinine (assess hy- kidney into the perinephric fat, or by direct haematoge- dration and renal function). It In reﬂux nephropathy, the papillae are damaged, and the may not be possible to differentiate it from a renal calyces become dilated and ‘clubbed’. However, hypertension Antibiotic choice is as for pyelonephritis, until culture may lead to damage to the single functioning kidney. In large abscesses (>3 cm) medi- cal therapy alone is often insufﬁcient, and percutaneous drainage or even partial or total nephrectomy may be Clinical features required. The term should largely be replaced by ‘reﬂux nephropathy’, the Macroscopy most common form. The kidneys are smaller than normal, with an irregular, blunted, distorted pelvicalyceal system and areas of scar- Incidence/prevalence ring 1–2 cm in size. Accountsforabout15%ofcasesofend-stagerenalfailure and is an important cause of hypertension in later life. Microscopy Aetiology Areas of interstitial ﬁbrosis with chronic inﬂammatory The development of chronic pyelonephritis requires cell inﬁltration. The tubules are atrophic or dilated and there to be infections in a kidney with an underlying the glomeruli show periglomerular ﬁbrosis. Chapter 6: Urinary tract infections 269 Investigations renal failure, and chronic inﬂammation predisposes to The scarring of reﬂux nephropathy is best visualised by squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder.
Environmental conditions such as hypothermia clonidine 0.1 mg visa blood pressure numbers for seniors, heat stroke or smoke inhalation will oftentimes respond to resuscitative efforts with complete recovery purchase clonidine 0.1mg mastercard blood pressure zoloft. Rarer events such as lightning strikes or drowning may require resuscitation to revive the victim cheap clonidine 0.1mg fast delivery can blood pressure medication kill you. I don’t want you to think that you don’t have to do this just because you read this book. Your responsibility as medic is to get training; this is mandatory for anyone that expects to be a caregiver in a long-term survival scenario. Airway Obstruction One situation where you can save a life by knowing how to perform a simple maneuver is in the case of an airway obstruction. This most commonly occurs as a result of a bite of food lodging in the back of the throat and cutting off respiration. This is a relatively common way to die, even in modern times, and it really shouldn’t be. If you see a conscious adult in sudden respiratory distress, ask quickly: Are you choking on something? They will probably be agitated and holding their throat, but they will hear you and (frantically) nod their head “yes”. Tell the victim that you’re there to help them and immediately get into position for the Heimlich maneuver, otherwise known as an “abdominal thrust” (see figure above). Place your fist above the belly button; then, wrap your left arm around the patient and grasp the right fist. If your patient loses consciousness and you are unable to dislodge the obstructive item, place the patient in a supine position and straddle them across the thighs or hips. Give several upward abdominal thrusts with the heels of your palms above the belly button (one hand on top of the other). In old movies, you might see someone slap the victim hard on the back; this is unlikely to dislodge a foreign object and will waste precious time. An exception to this is in an infant: place the baby over your forearm (facing down) and apply several blows with the heel of your hand to the upper back. This procedure, also called a cricothyroidotomy, involves cutting an opening in the windpipe below the level of an obstruction. Tracheotomy should be performed only when an airway obstruction completely prevents the ability to breathe after multiple Heimlich maneuvers have been attempted unsuccessfully. To perform a tracheotomy, you will need a sharp blade and some sort of tube, such as a straw. Don’t worry about antiseptics for now; you are performing this procedure because someone may die in the next few minutes. Make a horizontal incision with your knife or a razor blade in the crease between the Adam’s apple and the cricoid cartilage. Try to get it a couple of inches down the windpipe; doing this makes it less likely to fall out. Grasp the person’s shoulders and move them gently while continuing to ask them questions. If they are still unresponsive (which you should be able to determine in seconds), it’s time to check their pulse and respirations. If they aren’t breathing or no pulse is felt, it’s time to start resuscitative efforts. You will begin chest compressions by placing the heel of your hand in the middle of the chest; Place it, palm down, over the lower half of the breastbone at the level of the nipple. Keeping yourself positioned directly above your hands (arms straight), press downward in such a fashion that the breastbone (also called the “sternum”) is compressed about 2 inches. Allow the chest to recoil completely and then perform 30 compressions, at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute. Be certain to avoid the rib cage, as broken ribs are a common complication of the procedure. After 30 chest compressions, evaluate the victim for breathing and clear the airway. If there is none, place the patient’s head in a position that will allow the clearest passage for air to enter the body. Tilt the head back (unless there is evidence of a neck injury) and grasp the underside of the chin and lower jaw with one hand and lift. Using this method, the tongue and other throat structures are placed in a position that helps the patient take in oxygen. There are both rigid oral and flexible nasal versions that help keep the airway open. Pinch the nose closed to prevent the escape of air that needs to get into the lungs. You can determine the effectiveness of your efforts by watching the patient’s chest rise as you give the breaths.
A note on the significance of this paper Viral infections of cells results in the production and secretion of cytokines clonidine 0.1 mg sale blood pressure guidelines chart, including the interferons cheap 0.1mg clonidine overnight delivery hypertension young age. Interferons control the way that cells respond to a virus by means of a group of inter‐related enzymes that comprise an anti‐viral pathway discount 0.1mg clonidine overnight delivery pulse pressure variation values. Professors Suhadolnik and De Meirleir robustly showed that Gow et al’s study was fundamentally flawed. In our study, which they clearly misquoted, we did not measure the enzymatic activity of the fragment and, hence, the 2‐5A pathway activation as Gow and colleagues claimed. Evidence suggests that such patients may not really be euthyroid, especially at the tissue level. These anomalies may be part of the physiopathology of some of the common complaints, such as fatigue” (Meeus M et al. In their Closing Remarks, Professors Komaroff and Klimas said: “Few studies by psychiatrists are presented in this supplement. It has two variants [A and B]; the A strain is much more pathogenic and infects the immune and central nervous systems. Reactivation in adults has been associated with glandular fever, autoimmune disorders and diseases of the nervous system. Submission to Assembly Committee/Ways & Means, Exhibit B1‐20, submitted by Annette Whittemore 1st June 2005). Various viruses have been shown to play a triggering or perpetuating role, or both, in this complex disease…. First, this team had put together such strong science that they could go for a Science paper. If you get your stuff in Science, that’s the best place you could possibly (get it published). And they don’t take just anything and they sure, sure, sure don’t take anything unless it’s extremely well done, validated and tested out. They thought it was so important, they published on a very fast track…The way (the researchers at the Whittemore Peterson Institute) looked is very sophisticated…They then tried to find (the virus) in all these other ways…they looked from a whole different angle. And you have some inflammation in the tissues that make hormones, particularly in the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐axis. No better biomarker than something that’s clearly, tightly associated with an illness…So the conclusion, it really is a big thing. Now there is evidence of a direct link with a virus that disables the immune system, thus allowing numerous latent viruses to re‐ activate, which may result in the protean symptomatology. We have clearly documented certain enterovirus infections triggering autoimmune responses in some patients…Can you imagine how we would feel if there are viruses surviving in our muscles, brains, hearts and gastrointestinal tracts triggering ongoing immune responses? Viruses cause disease at the most basic level, by damaging the cells of living things. By themselves, viruses are lifeless particles incapable of reproduction, but once they enter the cell of another living thing they become active organisms that can multiply hundreds of times. These specialised viruses are known as retroviruses and have a unique ability to merge with the host’s own genetic material. Before publication, the findings were presented on 4th September 1990 by Elaine De Freitas at the 11th International Congress of Neuropathology in Kyoto, Japan. Some people would always rather have a disease that might kill them than a syndrome they have to live with’ ” (Science 1990:249:4974:1240). It may be a secondary infection to which immunologically compromised patients are susceptible. Alternatively, it may be one of two viruses that, when co‐infecting the same haematopoetic cells, induce immune dysfunction”. De Freitas was publicly discredited; her research funding was discontinued and her research abandoned; she was subjected to what appeared to be attempts to destroy her professional reputation. Cocchetto is clear: “the contents of this paper have major implications due to the depth and scientific quality of the work…The entire patent is approximately 40 pages. Again, the implications here are just staggering…The only conclusion that can be reached is that this work is very thorough and extensive. Lord Warner was unambiguous: ʺWe have checked with the National Blood Service and they have provided the following information. Since the condition is very variable and sometimes prolonged, it could become a lifetime ban in any particular case. It is understood that Mikovits’ discovery was deemed to be of such magnitude by the world’s most prestigious science journal that the authors’ paper (which was submitted on 6th May 2009) was sent to three times the customary number of referees prior to acceptance and publication. According to Wikipedia, “endophenotype” is a psychiatric concept, the purpose of which is to divide behavioural symptoms into separate phenotypes with clear genetic connections. This suggests that several million Americans may be infected with a retrovirus of as yet unknown pathogenic potential”.
In an era of high technology buy clonidine 0.1 mg without a prescription blood pressure chart while exercising, we may have expectations that our resources will always be sufficient to meet our emergency needs cheap 0.1mg clonidine visa heart attack 2014. Recent history has proven otherwise discount 0.1mg clonidine free shipping blood pressure medication prices, and it may be time for us, as physicians, to increase the amount of education we provide for our patients; in this way, they can function as assets to their family if you or emergency medical personnel are not available. Few medical offices provide information regarding the types and quantities of medical supplies that are recommended for the average household. These are my suggestions: Consider your area’s likely needs for the disasters that might befall it, and print lists of items that you would advise your patients to have in their homes. As well, provide resources for classes that your patients can take so that they will have the medical education necessary to deal with possible emergencies during these events. Direct them to sites recommended by the federal government for emergency preparedness, such as www. For your individual patients, especially those with chronic medical problems, you might consider providing the opportunity for them to keep a supply of needed medications by offering them an extra prescription to fill. In this manner, you can assure that your patients will have enough medicine to get them through situations which prevent them from contacting you in times of trouble. I’m not asking you to abandon your responsibility by throwing prescriptions at them; I am simply suggesting that they would benefit from having some extra supplies available to deal with unforeseen circumstances. Also, consider listing recommended over-the- counter medications that would be useful to have on hand. Our purpose as physicians is to improve the health of our people while doing no harm. Many doctors dedicate their entire lives to this purpose, and we must work to preserve the well-being of our patients in bad times as well as good times. The worst nightmare of your patients is the inability to reach you in a major disaster; help them become better prepared to deal with medical emergencies with education, compassion, and understanding. Thank you for all you do to keep your patients healthy, and for your time and attention in reading this letter. Certainly, you have accumulated a reasonable amount of medical supplies to prepare you for the role of survival medic. If you have been prudent, you have taken emergency courses offered by your municipality and availed yourself of other hands-on teaching resources. This book has taken an unusual route in assuming that no modern medical care or facilities will be available to you. Although we have attempted to be comprehensive in our approach, there is still much to learn. In power-down situations, you should have a number of printed medical books that you can refer to in times of trouble. In this section, we have given you a list that will be welcome assistance in your efforts to keep your people healthy. While you have power, you should also avail yourself of the many resources available on the internet. For many procedures, there is no substitute to seeing something done in real time, such as placing a cast. No prepared individual should be without a source of power in hard times, so have a solar cell or other method to give you the ability to review these when you need them. We refer to our library constantly to stay current on the options available to us, and so should you. I mentioned earlier that some reference books will be necessary for any aspiring medic. A printed medical library will still be there in a collapse situation, even if the internet, television, and other media are not. There are many good written resources for handling medical problems; these are but a few. The following books will be good additions to every medic’s library: Stedman’s Medical Dictionary (a must for any medic) Gray’s Anatomy for Students (yes, the television show’s title was taken from this book) The Physician’s Desk Reference (comes out yearly, tells you indications, dosages, and risks of just about every medicine) The Merck Manual (good pocket reference on many common medical problems) The Mayo Clinic Family Health book (exhaustive and thorough with lots of photos) Clinical Physiology Made Ridiculously Simple by Stephen Goldberg, M. Gordon (plain English home remedies for 100 different medical problems; excellent integrative medical reference) Principles of Surgery by Schwartz et al (for the very, very ambitious) Tactical Medicine Essentials by the American College of Emergency Physicians (for really high-risk situations) Varney’s Midwifery or Varney’s Pocket Midwife (you never know when you’ll need it) If you have all these books in your medical library, you will have as much information at your fingertips as you’ll need to keep your loved ones healthy in times of trouble. This phenomenon has placed a veritable library at your fingertips with regards to medical information. Even better than a library, you can actually see important medical procedures being performed, such as in my video “How to Suture with Dr. They range from a short blurb of a minute or so to a full one hour medical school lecture. The next few pages are essentially an entire second book filled with medical knowledge. I have endeavored to find a representative video for just about every subject that I cover in this book. Different sources are listed, so that you can see the many options available for health information in all fields. The source is listed in parentheses after the title of the video, along with a short comment.